This paper is the final update of two former studies. The first one, titled “UNRWA’s Problematic Educational Role in the Middle East Conflict”, was issued in September 2017. It reviewed UNRWA’s role in perpetuating the Middle East conflict, having used for decades textbooks that delegitimize the State of Israel and the very presence of its Jewish citizens in the country, demonize both Israel and Jews in various contexts and advocate a violent struggle against it instead of peace and coexistence. The said study covered the latest years of UNRWA activity and relied on some 150 textbooks in various school subjects mostly published by the Palestinian Authority (PA) between the years 2013 and 2017.

Dr. Arnon Groiss, Research Director.